The ABCs of Python: “def,” “class,” and leopards

Here are two more keywords in Python:

def

This is short for “define.” You use this word to tell the computer that you’re defining something called a function. As we discussed in the posts Um, What’s Your Function, Again? and Could You Pass the Delicious-Looking Plate of Parameters?, a function is a block of lego-like code that not only helps you keep your code orderly but makes it a lot easier to use it again in future programs (or use it multiple times in the same program).

With def, you’re telling the computer, “Hey, pay attention! You’ve gotta remember what we’re doing here so you can reference it when needed.” It’s sort of like when a choir conductor points to the lead singer, indicating, “It’s your turn to play the lead verse, and I mean now!” Here’s a super simple example of a function:

def leopard(): #name of the function and a bad rock n' roll pun
    print("snarl") #this is what it does
leopard() #this is how you call it

class

You might remember this keyword from the “Got Class?” post. Classes can be thought of as blueprints or templates that help you to create a variety of related Python objects. You might think of a  class as a sort of “uber function” that, among other things, helps create and control a bunch of other functions.

But that’s not entirely accurate. This is probably a better definition: “A Python class is like an outline for creating a new object. An object is anything that you wish to manipulate or change while working through the code.”

But maybe it’s best if you just create few classes. Here’s a quick bit of code to remind you how it works. This one is a slightly modified version from the one on the official Python site:

class Leopardy:
    kind = 'cat'      # class variable shared by all instances
    def __init__(self, name):
        self.name = name #variable unique to each instance
d = Leopardy('Fangs')
e = Leopardy('Spot')
d.kind                  # shared by all leopards
e.kind                  # shared by all leopards
d.name                  # unique to d
e.name                  # unique to e
print(d.name)
print(d.kind)

If you run that code, you should get two things printed out: “Fangs” and “cat.”

Featured image from Def_Leppard_Allstate_Arena_7-19-12 wikipedia Wikipedia: Image by AngryApathy

Um, What’s Your Function, Again?

On a first look at functions in Python

Everybody needs to find a place in this world, and that includes your computer code.  One of the best ways of making sure your code knows its proper place is by writing it in the form of a function.  A function is kind of like a lego block. You write it in such a way that it can connect up nicely with other functions and lines of code. Together, they build something cool.

These structured blocks of code are used to perform an action and return some type of value.  They’re modular, so you may be able to use them over and over. In fact, Python has lots of built-in functions, such as the “print” function, designed to make your life easier. You take its built-in blocks and snap them together with blocks of your own design.

It’s sort of like child’s play, but with more cursing.

You know a function when you see one because it starts with the keyword known as “def,” which stands for “define.” That is, you immediately define what your block of code does. It’s sort of like those nametags at business conferences: “Hi, I’m So-and-So, and Work at NameOfBiz as a NameOfOccupation.” Except functions somehow seem a lot less lame than nametags.

Function blocks start with def and then are followed by function’s name, parentheses and a colon (don’t forget the colon!). Like so:

def function_name():

But that’s not all, there’s more! A lot more, as you’ll see in the next post.

PS – If you’re the instant gratification type and want to learn more about functions right now, then here are some sites I recommend:

Featured image from GTurnbull925. Wikimedia Common. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pile_of_lego_blocks.jpg